Part 2: Microservices security with OAuth2

I have been writing about security with OAuth2 in some articles before. This article is the continuation of samples previously described in the following posts:

Today I’m going to show you more advanced sample than before, where all authentication and OAuth2 data is stored on database. We also find out how to secure microservices, especially considering an inter-communication between them with Feign client. I hope this article will provide a guidance and help you with designing and implementing secure solutions with Spring Cloud. Let’s begin.

There are four services running inside our sample system, what is visualized on the figure below. There is nothing unusual here. We have a discovery server where our sample microservices account-service and customer-service are registered. Those microservices are both protected with OAuth2 authorization. Authorization is managed by auth-server. It stores not only OAuth2 tokens, but also users authentication data. The whole process is implemented using Spring Security and Spring Cloud libraries.


1. Start database

All the authentication credentials and tokens are stored in MySQL database. So, the first step is to start MySQL. The most comfortable way to achieve it is through a Docker container. The command visible below in addition to starting database also creates schema and user oauth2.

docker run -d --name mysql -e MYSQL_DATABASE=oauth2 -e MYSQL_USER=oauth2 -e MYSQL_PASSWORD=oauth2 -e MYSQL_ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=yes -p 33306:3306 mysql

2. Configure data source in application

MySQL is now available on port host if you run Docker on Windows and port 33306. Datasource properties should be set in application.yml of auth-server. Spring Boot is also able to run some SQL scripts on selected datasource after an application startup. It’s good news for us, because we have to create some tables on the schema dedicated for OAuth2 process.

    name: auth-server
    url: jdbc:mysql://
    username: oauth2
    password: oauth2
    driver-class-name: com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
    schema: classpath:/script/schema.sql
    data: classpath:/script/data.sql

3. Create schema in MySQL

Despite appearances, it is not so simple to find the SQL script with tables that needs to be created when using Spring Security for OAuth2. Here’s that script, which is available under /src/main/resources/script/schema.sql in auth-server module. We have to create six tables:

  • oauth_client_details
  • oauth_client_token
  • oauth_access_token
  • oauth_refresh_token
  • oauth_code
  • oauth_approvals
drop table if exists oauth_client_details;
create table oauth_client_details (
  client_id VARCHAR(255) PRIMARY KEY,
  resource_ids VARCHAR(255),
  client_secret VARCHAR(255),
  scope VARCHAR(255),
  authorized_grant_types VARCHAR(255),
  web_server_redirect_uri VARCHAR(255),
  authorities VARCHAR(255),
  access_token_validity INTEGER,
  refresh_token_validity INTEGER,
  additional_information VARCHAR(4096),
  autoapprove VARCHAR(255)
drop table if exists oauth_client_token;
create table oauth_client_token (
  token_id VARCHAR(255),
  authentication_id VARCHAR(255) PRIMARY KEY,
  user_name VARCHAR(255),
  client_id VARCHAR(255)

drop table if exists oauth_access_token;
CREATE TABLE oauth_access_token (
  token_id VARCHAR(256) DEFAULT NULL,
  token BLOB,
  authentication_id VARCHAR(256) DEFAULT NULL,
  user_name VARCHAR(256) DEFAULT NULL,
  client_id VARCHAR(256) DEFAULT NULL,
  authentication BLOB,
  refresh_token VARCHAR(256) DEFAULT NULL

drop table if exists oauth_refresh_token;
CREATE TABLE oauth_refresh_token (
  token_id VARCHAR(256) DEFAULT NULL,
  token BLOB,
  authentication BLOB

drop table if exists oauth_code;
create table oauth_code (
  code VARCHAR(255), authentication LONG VARBINARY
drop table if exists oauth_approvals;
create table oauth_approvals (
    userId VARCHAR(255),
    clientId VARCHAR(255),
    scope VARCHAR(255),
    status VARCHAR(10),
    expiresAt DATETIME,
    lastModifiedAt DATETIME

4. Add some test data to database

There is also the second SQL script /src/main/resources/script/data.sql with some insert commands for the test purpose. The most important thing is to add some client id/client secret pairs.

INSERT INTO `oauth_client_details` (`client_id`, `client_secret`, `scope`, `authorized_grant_types`, `access_token_validity`, `additional_information`) VALUES ('account-service', 'secret', 'read', 'authorization_code,password,refresh_token,implicit', '900', '{}');
INSERT INTO `oauth_client_details` (`client_id`, `client_secret`, `scope`, `authorized_grant_types`, `access_token_validity`, `additional_information`) VALUES ('customer-service', 'secret', 'read', 'authorization_code,password,refresh_token,implicit', '900', '{}');
INSERT INTO `oauth_client_details` (`client_id`, `client_secret`, `scope`, `authorized_grant_types`, `access_token_validity`, `additional_information`) VALUES ('customer-service-write', 'secret', 'write', 'authorization_code,password,refresh_token,implicit', '900', '{}');

5. Bulding Authorization Server

Now, the most important thing in this article – authorization server configuration. The configuration class should be annotated with @EnableAuthorizationServer. Then we need to overwrite some methods from extended AuthorizationServerConfigurerAdapter class. The first important thing here is to set the default token storage to a database by providing bean JdbcTokenStore with default data source as a parameter. Although all tokens are now stored in a database we still want to generate them in JWT format. That’s why the second bean JwtAccessTokenConverter has to be provided in that class. By overriding different configure methods inherited from the base class we can set a default storage for OAuth2 client details and require authorization server to always verify the API key submitted in HTTP headers.

public class OAuth2Config extends AuthorizationServerConfigurerAdapter {

   private DataSource dataSource;
   private AuthenticationManager authenticationManager;

   public void configure(AuthorizationServerEndpointsConfigurer endpoints) throws Exception {

   public void configure(AuthorizationServerSecurityConfigurer oauthServer) throws Exception {

   public JwtAccessTokenConverter accessTokenConverter() {
	  return new JwtAccessTokenConverter();

   public void configure(ClientDetailsServiceConfigurer clients) throws Exception {

   public JdbcTokenStore tokenStore() {
	  return new JdbcTokenStore(dataSource);


The main OAuth2 grant type, which is used in the current sample is Resource owner credentials grant. In that type of grant client application sends user login and password to authenticate against OAuth2 server. A POST request sent by the client contains the following parameters:

  • grant_type – with the value ‘password’
  • client_id – with the client’s ID
  • client_secret – with the client’s secret
  • scope – with a space-delimited list of requested scope permissions
  • username – with the user’s username
  • password – with the user’s password

The authorization server will respond with a JSON object containing the following parameters:

  • token_type – with the value ‘Bearer’
  • expires_in – with an integer representing the TTL of the access token
  • access_token – the access token itself
  • refresh_token – a refresh token that can be used to acquire a new access token when the original expires

Spring application provides a custom authentication mechanism by implementing UserDetailsService interface and overriding its method loadUserByUsername. In our sample application user credentials and authorities are also stored in the database, so we inject UserRepository bean to the custom UserDatailsService class.

public class UserDetailsServiceImpl implements UserDetailsService {

    private final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(UserDetailsServiceImpl.class);

    private UserRepository userRepository;

    public UserDetails loadUserByUsername(final String login) {

        log.debug("Authenticating {}", login);
        String lowercaseLogin = login.toLowerCase();

        User userFromDatabase;
        if(lowercaseLogin.contains("@")) {
            userFromDatabase = userRepository.findByEmail(lowercaseLogin);
        } else {
            userFromDatabase = userRepository.findByUsernameCaseInsensitive(lowercaseLogin);

        if (userFromDatabase == null) {
            throw new UsernameNotFoundException("User " + lowercaseLogin + " was not found in the database");
        } else if (!userFromDatabase.isActivated()) {
            throw new UserNotActivatedException("User " + lowercaseLogin + " is not activated");

        Collection<GrantedAuthority> grantedAuthorities = new ArrayList<>();
        for (Authority authority : userFromDatabase.getAuthorities()) {
            GrantedAuthority grantedAuthority = new SimpleGrantedAuthority(authority.getName());

        return new, userFromDatabase.getPassword(), grantedAuthorities);


That’s practically all what should be written about auth-service module. Let’s move on to the client microservices.

6. Bulding microservices

The REST API is very simple. It does nothing more than returning some data. However, there is one interesting thing in that implementation. That is preauthorization based on OAuth token scope, which is annotated on the API methods with @PreAuthorize("#oauth2.hasScope('read')").

public class AccountController {

   public Account findAccount(@PathVariable("id") Integer id) {
	  return new Account(id, 1, "123456789", 1234);

   public List<Account> findAccounts() {
	  return Arrays.asList(new Account(1, 1, "123456789", 1234), new Account(2, 1, "123456780", 2500),
		new Account(3, 1, "123456781", 10000));


Preauthorization is disabled by default. To enable it for API methods we should use @EnableGlobalMethodSecurity annotation. We should also declare that such a preauthorization would be based on OAuth2 token scope.

@EnableGlobalMethodSecurity(prePostEnabled = true)
public class OAuth2ResourceServerConfig extends GlobalMethodSecurityConfiguration {

    protected MethodSecurityExpressionHandler createExpressionHandler() {
        return new OAuth2MethodSecurityExpressionHandler();


7. Feign client with OAuth2

The API method findAccounts implemented in AccountController is invoked by customer-service through a Feign client.

@FeignClient(name = "account-service", configuration = AccountClientConfiguration.class)
public interface AccountClient {

   List<Account> findAccounts();


If you call account service endpoint via Feign client you get the following exception.

feign.FeignException: status 401 reading AccountClient#findAccounts(); content:{"error":"unauthorized","error_description":"Full authentication is required to access this resource"}

Why? Of course, account-service is protected with OAuth2 token authorization, but Feign client does not send an authorization token in the request header. That aproach may be customized by defining custom configuration class for Feign client. It allows to declare a request interceptor. In that case we can use an implementation for OAuth2 provided by OAuth2FeignRequestInterceptor from Spring Cloud OAuth2 library. We prefer password

public class AccountClientConfiguration {

   private String accessTokenUri;
   private String clientId;
   private String clientSecret;
   private String scope;

   RequestInterceptor oauth2FeignRequestInterceptor() {
	  return new OAuth2FeignRequestInterceptor(new DefaultOAuth2ClientContext(), resource());

   Logger.Level feignLoggerLevel() {
	  return Logger.Level.FULL;

   private OAuth2ProtectedResourceDetails resource() {
	  ResourceOwnerPasswordResourceDetails resourceDetails = new ResourceOwnerPasswordResourceDetails();
	  return resourceDetails;


8. Testing

Finally, we may perform some tests. Let’s build a sample project using mvn clean install command. If you run all the services with the default settings they would be available under addresses:

The test method is visible below. We use OAuth2RestTemplate with ResourceOwnerPasswordResourceDetails to perform resource owner credentials grant operation and call GET /{id} API method from customer-service with OAuth2 token send in the request header.

	public void testClient() {
        ResourceOwnerPasswordResourceDetails resourceDetails = new ResourceOwnerPasswordResourceDetails();
        DefaultOAuth2ClientContext clientContext = new DefaultOAuth2ClientContext();
        OAuth2RestTemplate restTemplate = new OAuth2RestTemplate(resourceDetails, clientContext);
        restTemplate.setMessageConverters(Arrays.asList(new MappingJackson2HttpMessageConverter()));
        final Customer customer = restTemplate.getForObject("http://localhost:8083/{id}", Customer.class, 1);