There are probably many articles about Kotlin coroutines online. That’s why I would like to focus just on showing you the difference between concept over coroutines and threads – a well-known concurrency mechanism in Java. We will start from a small portion of theory. Continue reading “Kotlin Coroutines vs Java Threads”
When I’m talking about microservices with other people they are often asking me about approach to distributed transactions. My advice is always the same – try to completely avoid distributed transactions in your microservices architecture. It is a very complex process with a lot of moving parts that can fail. That’s why it does not fit to the nature of microservices-based systems.
Continue reading “Distributed Transactions in Microservices with Spring Boot”
Okteto Platform seems to be an interesting alternative to the another more popular tools that simplify development on Kubernetes. In comparison to the tools like Skaffold or Draft the idea around Octeto is to move development entirely to Kubernetes. What does it mean in practice? Let’s check it out. Continue reading “Development on Kubernetes with Okteto and Spring Boot”
In this article I’m going to present an annotation-based Spring Boot library for integration with Istio. The Spring Boot Istio library provides auto-configuration, so you don’t have to do anything more than including it to your dependencies to be able to use it. Continue reading “Spring Boot Library for integration with Istio”
Although Kubernetes is a great solution for managing containerized applications, scaling and automating deployment, a local development on it may be a painful experience. A typical workflow includes several steps like checking the functionality of the code locally, building and tagging a docker image, creating a deployment configuration and finally deploying everything on Kubernetes. In this article I’m going to show how to use some tools together to simplify that process. Continue reading “Simplify development on Kubernetes with Dekorate, Skaffold and Spring Boot”
Spring Cloud Stream framework allows to easily include well-known Spring patterns and best practices to applications while implementing event-driven microservices architecture. It uses Spring Integration project to provide connectivity to a message broker. It provides built-in support for such features like persistent publish-subscribe model, consumer grouping and partitioning. The integration with specific message broker solution is realized by binder implementations that are hidden behind middleware-neutral core. Continue reading “Introduction to event-driven microservices with Spring Cloud Stream”
An ability to handle communication failures in an inter-service communication is an absolute necessity for every single service mesh framework. It includes handling of timeouts and HTTP error codes. In this article I’m going to show how to configure retry and circuit breaker mechanisms using Istio. The same as for the previous article about Istio Service mesh on Kubernetes with Istio and Spring Boot we will analyze a communication between two simple Spring Boot applications deployed on Kubernetes. But instead of very basic example we are going to discuss more advanced topics. Continue reading “Circuit breaker and retries on Kubernetes with Istio and Spring Boot”
Istio is currently the leading solution for building service mesh on Kubernetes. Thanks to Istio you can take control of a communication process between microservices. It also lets you to secure and observe your services. Spring Boot is still the most popular JVM framework for building microservice applications. In this article I’m going to show how to use both these tools to build applications and provide communication between them over HTTP on Kubernetes. Continue reading “Service mesh on Kubernetes with Istio and Spring Boot”
Spring Cloud is currently on the verge of large changes. I have been writing about it in my previous article A New Era of Spring Cloud. While almost all of Spring Cloud Netflix components will be removed in the next release, it seems that the biggest change is a replacement of Ribbon client into Spring Cloud Load Balancer. Continue reading “A Deep Dive Into Spring Cloud Load Balancer”
Almost 1.5 years ago Spring Team has announced the decision of moving the most of Spring Cloud Netflix components into maintenance mode. It means that new features have no longer been added to these modules beginning from Greenwich Release Train. Currently, they are starting work on Ilford Release Train, which is removing such popular projects like Ribbon, Hystrix, or Zuul from Spring Cloud. The only module that will still be used is a Netflix discovery server — Eureka.
This change is significant for Spring Cloud since from beginning it was recognized by its integration with Netflix components. Moreover, Spring Cloud Netflix is still the most popular Spring Cloud project on GitHub (~4k stars). Continue reading “A New Era Of Spring Cloud”
Scope functions is one of the Kotlin feature I really like. When using such a function on an object, you are executing a block of code within the context of that object. You won’t find a similar feature in Java. There are five scope functions available in Kotlin:
also. In fact all of them is doing the same thing – execute a block of code on an object. However, there are some differences and we will discuss them on the simple example of code. Continue reading “Kotlin Scope Functions”
My YouTube channel has been finally released! It is available here: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCAieNgran7umupT_D50KaGw. I’m going to publish there tutorials and courses in the same subject matter as on my dev blog: Microservices, Containers, Spring Boot, Kubernetes etc.
In this article I’ll guide you through the steps required for building and running simple Kotlin microservice on Google Kubernetes Engine. We will use such and framework like Spring Boot, Skaffold and Jib. Continue reading “Running Kotlin Microservice on Google Kubernetes Engine”
If you are building reactive applications with Spring WebFlux, typically you will use Reactor Netty as a default embedded server. Reactor Netty is currently one of the most popular asynchronous event-driven applications framework. It provides non-blocking and backpressure-ready TCP, HTTP, and UDP clients and servers. In fact, the most important difference between synchronous and reactive frameworks is in their threading and concurrency model. Without understanding how reactive framework handles threads, you won’t fully understand reactivity. Let’s take a closer look on the threading model realized by Spring WebFlux and Project Reactor. Continue reading “A Deep Dive Into Spring WebFlux Threading Model”
Kubernetes doesn’t provide built-in support for
Secret versioning. Sometimes such a feature may be useful, when we are deciding to rollback current version of our application. In Kubernetes we are able to rollback just a version of
Deployment without any additional configuration properties stored in
Secret. Continue reading “Kubernetes ConfigMap Versioning for Spring Boot Apps”
In this article I’m going to introduce my newest library for registering Spring Boot applications running outside Kubernetes cluster. The motivation for creating this library has already been described in the details in my article Spring Cloud Kubernetes for Hybrid Microservices Architecture. Since Spring Cloud Kubernetes doesn’t implement registration in service registry in any way, and just delegates it to the platform, it will not provide many benefits to applications running outside Kubernetes cluster. To take an advantage of Spring Cloud Kubernetes Discovery you may just include library
spring-cloud-kubernetes-discovery-ext-client to your Spring Boot application running externally. Continue reading “Using Spring Cloud Kubernetes External Library”
There are several best practices for building microservices architecture properly. You may find many articles about it online. One of them is my previous article Spring Boot Best Practices For Microservices. I focused there on the most important aspects that should be considered when running microservice applications built on top of Spring Boot on production. I didn’t assumed there any platform used for orchestration or management, but just a group of independent applications. In this article I’m going to extend the list of already introduced best practices with some new rules dedicated especially for microservices deployed on Kubernetes platform. Continue reading “Best Practices For Microservices on Kubernetes”
In this article I’m going to describe two features of Spring Cloud Gateway: retrying based on
GatewayFilter pattern and timeouts based on a global configuration. In some previous articles in this series I have described rate limiting based on Redis, and circuit breaker built with Resilience4J. For more details about those two features you may refer to the following blog posts:
- Rate Limiting In Spring Cloud Gateway with Redis
- Circuit Breaking in Spring Cloud Gateway with Resilience4J
I have already written about documentation for microservices more than two years ago in my article Microservices API Documentation with Swagger2. In that case I used project SpringFox for auto-generating Swagger documentation for Spring Boot applications. Since that time the SpringFox library is not being actively developed by the maintainers – the latest version has been released on June 2018. Currently, the most important problems with this library are a lack of support for OpenAPI in the newest version 3, and for Spring reactive APIs built using WebFlux. All these features are implemented by Springdoc OpenAPI library. Therefore, it may threaten as a replacement for SpringFox as Swagger and OpenAPI 3 generation tool for Spring Boot applications. Continue reading “Microservices API Documentation with Springdoc OpenAPI”
The main goal of this article is to show how to monitor Spring Boot applications running on Kubernetes with Spring Boot Admin. I have already written about Spring Boot Admin more than two years ago in the article Monitoring Microservices With Spring Boot Admin. You can find there a detailed description of its main features. During this time some new features have been added. They have also changed a look of the application to more modern. But the principles of working have not been changes anymore, so you can still refer to my previous article to understand the main concept around Spring Boot Admin. Continue reading “Spring Boot Admin on Kubernetes”
There are many tools, which may simplify your local development on Kubernetes. For Java applications you may also take an advantage of integration between popular runtime frameworks and Kubernetes. In this article I’m going to present some of available solutions. Continue reading “Local Java Development on Kubernetes”
Hazelcast is the leading in-memory data grid (IMDG) solution. The main idea behind IMDG is to distribute data across many nodes inside cluster. Therefore, it seems to be an ideal solution for running on a cloud platform like Kubernetes, where you can easily scale up or scale down a number of running instances. Since Hazelcast is written in Java you can easily integrate it with your Java application using standard libraries. Something what can also simplify a start with Hazelcast is Spring Boot. You may also use an unofficial library implementing Spring Repositories pattern for Hazelcast – Spring Data Hazelcast. Continue reading “Hazelcast with Spring Boot on Kubernetes”
Auto-configuration is probably one of the most important reasons you would decide to use such frameworks like Spring Boot. Thanks to that feature, it is usually enough just to include an additional library and override some configuration properties to successfully use it in your application. Spring provides an easy way to define auto-configuration using standard
@Configuration classes. Continue reading “A Magic Around Spring Boot Auto Configuration”
Micronaut provides a library that eases development of applications deployed on Kubernetes or on a local single-node cluster like Minikube. The project Micronaut Kubernetes is relatively new in Micronaut family, its current release version is
1.0.3. It allows you to integrate Micronaut application with Kubernetes discovery, and use Micronaut Configuration Client to read Kubernetes
Secret as a property sources. Additionally it provides health check indicator based on communication with Kubernetes API. Continue reading “Guide To Micronaut Kubernetes”
You might use Spring Cloud Kubernetes to build applications running both inside and outside Kubernetes cluster. The only problem with starting application outside Kubernetes is that there is no auto-configured registration mechanism. Spring Cloud Kubernetes delegates registration to the platform, what is an obvious behaviour if you are deploying your application internally using Kubernetes objects. With external application the situation is different. In fact, you should guarantee registration by yourself on the application side. Continue reading “Spring Cloud Kubernetes For Hybrid Microservices Architecture”
Spring Cloud and Kubernetes are the popular products applicable to various different use cases. However, when it comes to microservices architecture they are sometimes described as competitive solutions. They are both implementing popular patterns in microservices architecture like service discovery, distributed configuration, load balancing or circuit breaking. Of course, they are doing it differently. Continue reading “Microservices With Spring Cloud Kubernetes”
In the newest version of Spring Cloud Gateway (
2.2.1) we may take an advantage of a new implementation of circuit breaker built on top of project Resilience4J (https://github.com/resilience4j/resilience4j). Resilience4J has been selected as a replacement for Netflix’s Hystrix, that had been moved to the maintenance mode. Of course, you can still use Hystrix as circuit breaker implementation, however it is deprecated and probably won’t be available in the future versions of Spring Cloud. A new implementation is called no different than just Spring Cloud Circuit Breaker. Continue reading “Circuit Breaking In Spring Cloud Gateway With Resilience4J”
In this article I’m going to propose my list of “golden rules” for building Spring Boot applications, which are a part of microservices-based system. I’m basing on my experience in migrating monolithic SOAP applications running on JEE servers into REST-based small applications built on top of Spring Boot. This list of best practices assumes you are running many microservices on the production under a huge incoming traffic. Let’s begin. Continue reading “Spring Boot Best Practices for Microservices”
If you are building microservices architecture on top of Spring Boot and Spring Cloud I’m almost sure that one of projects you are using is Spring Cloud Config. Spring Cloud Config is responsible for implementing one of the most popular microservices pattern called distributed configuration. It provides server-side (Spring Cloud Config Server) and client-side (Spring Cloud Config Server) support for externalized configuration in a distributed system. In this article I focus on security aspects related to that project. If you are interested in some basics please refer to my previous article about it Microservices Configuration With Spring Cloud Config. Continue reading “Secure Spring Cloud Config”
Currently Spring Cloud Gateway is second the most popular Spring Cloud project just after Spring Cloud Netflix (in terms of number of stars on GitHub). It has been created as a successor of Zuul proxy in Spring Cloud family. This project provides an API Gateway for microservices architecture, and is built on top of reactive Netty and Project Reactor. It is designed to provide a simple, but effective way to route to APIs and address such popular concerns as security, monitoring/metrics, and resiliency. Continue reading “Rate Limiting In Spring Cloud Gateway With Redis”
This is the fourth part of my tutorial to Micronaut Framework – created after a longer period of time. In this article I’m going to show you some examples of reactive programming on the server and client side. By default, Micronaut support to reactive APIs and streams is built on top of RxJava. Continue reading “Micronaut Tutorial: Reactive”
The Spring Cloud Consul project provides integration for Consul and Spring Boot applications through auto-configuration. By using the well-known Spring Framework annotation style, we may enable and configure common patterns within microservice-based environments. These patterns include service discovery using Consul agent, distributed configuration using Consul key/value store, distributed events with Spring Cloud Bus, and Consul Events. The project also supports a client-side load balancer based on Netflix’s Ribbon and an API gateway based on Spring Cloud Gateway. Continue reading “Microservices with Spring Boot, Spring Cloud Gateway and Consul Cluster”
Reactive APIs and generally reactive programming become increasingly popular lately. You have a change to observe more and more new frameworks and toolkits supporting reactive programming, or just dedicated for this. Today, in the era of microservices architecture, where the network communication through APIs becomes critical for applications, reactive APIs seems to be an attractive alternative to a traditional, synchronous approach. It should be definitely considered as a primary approach if you are working with large streams of data exchanged via network communication. Continue reading “Using Reactive WebClient with Spring WebFlux”
Since Spring 5 and Spring Boot 2 there is a full support for reactive REST API with Spring WebFlux project. Also project Spring Data systematically includes support for reactive NoSQL databases, and recently for SQL databases too. Since Spring Data Moore we can take advantage of reactive template and repository for Elasticsearch, what I have already described in one of my previous article Reactive Elasticsearch With Spring Boot. Continue reading “Performance Comparison Between Spring MVC and Spring WebFlux with Elasticsearch”
One of more notable feature introduced in the latest release of Spring Data is reactive support for Elasticsearch. Since Spring Data Moore we can take advantage of reactive template and repository. It is built on top of fully reactive Elasticsearch REST client, that is based on Spring WebClient. It is also worth to mention about support for reactive Querydsl, which can be included to your application through
ReactiveQueryPredicateExecutor. Continue reading “Reactive Elasticsearch With Spring Boot”
I have already introduced my Spring Boot library for synchronous HTTP request/response logging in one of my previous articles Logging with Spring Boot and Elastic Stack. This library is dedicated for synchronous REST applications built with Spring MVC and Spring Web. Since version 5.0 Spring Framework also offers support for reactive REST API through Spring WebFlux project. I decided to extend support for logging in my library to reactive Spring WebFlux.
Almost a year ago Spring Cloud has announced that most of Spring Cloud Netflix OSS projects will be moved to the maintenance mode starting from Spring Cloud Greenwich Release Train. In fact the maintenance mode only does not include Eureka, which still will be supported. I referred to that information in one of my previous articles The Future of Spring Cloud Microservices After Netflix Era. I have shared there some opinions about future of microservices with Spring Cloud. Of course, I also included an example of building microservices architecture without Netflix OSS using HashiCorp’s Consul, Spring Cloud Gateway and an early version of Spring Cloud LoadBalancer.
I have already described how to build microservices architecture entirely based on message-driven communication through Apache Kafka in one of my previous articles Kafka In Microservices With Micronaut. As you can see in the article title the sample applications and integration with Kafka has been built on top of Micronaut Framework. I described some interesting features of Micronaut, that can be used for building message-driven microservices, but I specially didn’t write anything about testing. In this article I’m going to show you how to test your Kafka microservice using Micronaut Test core features (Component Tests), Testcontainers (Integration Tests) and Pact (Contract Tests).
Stream API, which has been introduced in Java 8, is probably still the most important new feature that has been included to Java during last several years. I think that every Java developer has an opportunity to use Java Stream API in his career. Or I should rather told that you probably use it on a day-to-day basis. However, if you compare the built-in features offered for functional programming with some other languages – for example Kotlin – you will quickly realize that the number of methods provided by Stream API is very limited. Therefore, the community has created several libraries used just for extending API offered by pure Java. Today I’m going to show the most interesting Stream API extensions offered by the three popular Java libraries: StreamEx, jOOλ and Guava.